Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Journal en-US Sun, 12 May 2019 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 60 The Role of Humic Substances (Elixir) in Optimizing Electrical Conductivity and pH of Clay soil- Gedaref Region- Sudan <p style="text-align: justify;">An experiment was conducted at the college of Agricultural and Environmental Science – Gedaref University demonstration farm – Sudan, to study the effect of humic substances (Elixir) on the soil salts content (electrical conductivity) and soil pH. Elixir 90 ml and 190 ml were applied to soil at two incubation periods (15 and 30 days). At the end of each period, the readings of soil EC and pH were measured. The results show that the average of soil EC obtained after 15 days by using Elixir 95ml (E1) and 190ml (E2) was 1.32 and 1.42 dS/m respectively, compared with control (E0) 1. 71 dS/m. The average of soil EC obtained after 30 days by using Elixir 90ml (E3) and 190ml (E4) was 1.11 and 1.32 respectively. The statistical results indicated that the application of Elixir reduced the soil EC and E4 has a good value in lowering soil EC than other treatments. On the soil pH, the average was 8.07, 8.27, 7.05 and 8.16 for E1, E2, E3 and E4 respectively compared with control (E0) 9.01, the statistical results showed that the addition of Elixir also reduced the soil pH. The E4 showed a high efficiency in reducing the soil pH. It can be concluded that the addition of Elixir 90 ml can be recommended for reducing the soil salts and pH.</p> Mohammed Elbashier, Albashir Ali, Anwar Abdallah Copyright (c) 2017 Soil, Plant and Environment Tue, 14 May 2019 00:00:00 -0400 Interaction among Groundwater Quality, Soil Properties and Okra Crop Productivity <p style="text-align: justify;">Irrigation water with high Salinity causes unfavorable environment and hydrological situation that restrict okra production and have significant effect on growth parameters. A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of groundwater quality on soil properties and Okra crop productivity under Khartoum state conditions. Three different samples of groundwater and soils nearby water source were taken from three locations at Khartoum state. The parameters measured for both water and soil were (K, Na, Ca, Mg, CO3, HCO3 SO4, pH and EC) and crop yield (kg ha-1). Chemical analysis showed that the level of different constituents of groundwater at three locations was closed to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) standards for irrigation water except sodium absorption ratio (SAR). Khartoum North recorded the highest values of pH, EC and HCO3, while the highest values of SAR recorded in western Omdurman. Soil analysis revealed significant differences (P &lt; 0.05) in chemical properties among treatments. Whereas, Khartoum North recorded the highest values of pH and EC, while lower values of EC were recorded in south Khartoum. The yield recorded in south Khartoum, North Khartoum, and western Omdurman were 381, 286, 321 kg ha-1, respectively. The values of yield loss per unit of salinity were found to be 70, 36 and 22 kg ha-1 1/ds m-1 for south Khartoum, western Omdurman and North Khartoum, respectively. The results concluded that water quality should be considered as the most important factor in crop selection and irrigation system design.</p> Nazar Elshaikh, Abubaker Ali, Gamareldawla Agbna, Amir Basheer Copyright (c) 2017 Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Journal Tue, 14 May 2019 00:00:00 -0400 Biogas Production from Filter Mud in (CSTR) Reactor, Co-digested with Various Substrates (Wastes) <p style="text-align: justify;">The anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter mud and the option of co-digestion with bagasse, wheat straw and chicken manure in two mixing ratios were investigated. Experiments were carried out in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15, 10 and 7 days. While the main anaerobic digestion process parameters monitored. The HRT of 15 days was proved as the optimum with maximum biogas production capability of 700±44 ml Ld-1 for digestion of filter mud, and slightly reduce in biogas production when the HRT was reduced to 10 and 7 days. The VS removal efficiency at all HRTs was about 3.80%, and the highest average of COD removal efficiencies was 25.23% in HRT of 15 days. Regardless the co-digestion of filter mud with wheat straw in 1:1 ratio presented higher biogas yield (811.11±30 ml Ld-1) than co- digestion with other waste in all proportions during steady state condition of 15 days HRT.</p> Zahir Talha, Abdelbagi Hamid, Weimin Ding, Bashir Osman Copyright (c) 2017 Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Journal Wed, 15 May 2019 12:07:46 -0400 Isolation and Characterization of Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria (Burkholderia sp.) from Chinese Soil Rhizosphere <p style="text-align: justify;">Phosphorus solubilizing bacterium (PSB) was isolated from the rhizosphere of grass area in Yangzhou University, Jiangsu province, China. The aims of this study were to isolate PSB, screen, identify, and assess their effect on the growth of tomato plant. The isolation was done on tricalcium phosphate medium (TCP) which showed good efficient as phosphorus solubilization in both agar plate and liquid assays were obtained on in vitro experiment. The pH of the medium was decreased substantially from 9 to 6.9 in the second week; with enhancing on soluble phosphorus belong to different levels of pH. The inoculation significantly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, leaf area and fresh and dry weight on the tomato plant in pots experiment. The bacterial isolate was identified to be the member of <em>Burkholderia sp. </em>by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. A strong positive correlation was found between inoculated soil and uninoculated soil with (PSB) on plant growth and soil available phosphorus.</p> Mohammed Yahya , Noha Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2017 Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Journal Wed, 15 May 2019 12:20:28 -0400 Potential of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis for lactose free yoghurt production <p style="text-align: justify;">A total of five starter culture combinations were formulated from <em>Lactobacillus acidophilus</em>, <em>Lactobacillus casei</em>, <em>Bifidobacterium lactis</em>, <em>Streptococcus thermophilus</em> and <em>Lactobacillus delbrueckii</em> <em>sub sp. Bulgaricus</em>. The starter culture was freeze dried from CHR Hansen Middle East and Africa FZ-LLC, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. In this study, these 5 starter cultures were combined each other and 5 combinations were selected to utilize the most effective lactose converting strains in order to develop a yoghurt that is safe for lactose intolerant individuals (LIIs). A risk assessment on the developed products was run to ensure its suitability for the LIIs. Physicochemical, sensorial and microbiological properties of the developed product were determined at 0, 5 and 10 days of storage. For risk assessment, critical control points (CCPs) in the process of yoghurt production were determined. For each CCP critical limits (CLs) were identified particularly for lactose content. Five CCPs in the manufacturing of low lactose yoghurt were identified. The collected data were statistically analysed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) package. Results indicated that combination of <em>Lactobacillus casei</em> with <em>Bifidobacterium lactis</em> reduced the lactose content to 0.35%, 0.25% and 0.23% at day 0, 5 and 10, respectively, and produced a yoghurt with acceptable sensory quality. The amount of lactose in the developed yoghurt was way less the 1% level considered to be safe for lactose intolerant individuals, suggesting that the combination could be recommended for manufacturing probiotic yoghurt low in lactose destined for lactose intolerant individuals.</p> Shafag Kirkusawi, Elgasim Elgasim Copyright (c) 2017 Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Journal Wed, 15 May 2019 12:29:47 -0400