Interaction among Groundwater Quality, Soil Properties and Okra Crop Productivity
Irrigation water with high Salinity causes unfavorable environment and hydrological situation that restrict okra production and have significant effect on growth parameters. A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of groundwater quality on soil properties and Okra crop productivity under Khartoum state conditions. Three different samples of groundwater and soils nearby water source were taken from three locations at Khartoum state. The parameters measured for both water and soil were (K, Na, Ca, Mg, CO3, HCO3 SO4, pH and EC) and crop yield (kg ha-1). Chemical analysis showed that the level of different constituents of groundwater at three locations was closed to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) standards for irrigation water except sodium absorption ratio (SAR). Khartoum North recorded the highest values of pH, EC and HCO3, while the highest values of SAR recorded in western Omdurman. Soil analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) in chemical properties among treatments. Whereas, Khartoum North recorded the highest values of pH and EC, while lower values of EC were recorded in south Khartoum. The yield recorded in south Khartoum, North Khartoum, and western Omdurman were 381, 286, 321 kg ha-1, respectively. The values of yield loss per unit of salinity were found to be 70, 36 and 22 kg ha-1 1/ds m-1 for south Khartoum, western Omdurman and North Khartoum, respectively. The results concluded that water quality should be considered as the most important factor in crop selection and irrigation system design.